Difference between revisions of "Radiation Attenuation over Different Materials"

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=Description of the Experiment=
 
=Description of the Experiment=
This laboratory uses a [[#Theoretical Principles|Geiger-Müller]] detector to measure the radiation from a radioactive source (\( ^{241}Am_{95} \), [http://www.speclab.com/elements/americium.htm Amerício]), and study, by putting diferent materials between the source and the detector, the absorption of radiation of said materials.
+
This laboratory uses a [[#Theoretical Principles|Geiger-Müller]] detector to measure the radiation from a radioactive source (\( ^{241}Am_{95} \), [http://www.speclab.com/elements/americium.htm Amerício]), and study the absorption of radiation of different materials by putting them between the source and the detector.
  
  
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=Experimental Apparatus=
 
=Experimental Apparatus=
The user can set the distance between source and detector (between 6cm and 20cm), and choose which material to position between the two parts.
+
The user can set the distance between source and detector (between 6cm and 20cm), and choose which material to place between the two parts.
  
The avaliable material are:
+
The available materials are:
  
 
{| border="1"
 
{| border="1"
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The suggested protocol for this experiment in the Basic Laboratory is the following:
 
The suggested protocol for this experiment in the Basic Laboratory is the following:
 
# Study the variation of the radiation's intensity as the distance changes, given by the detector's output;
 
# Study the variation of the radiation's intensity as the distance changes, given by the detector's output;
# Verify the linear absorption rate of the diferent materials, trying to establish a theoretical law that relates the in intensity with the surface mass of each element;
+
# Verify the linear absorption rate of the diferent materials, trying to establish a theoretical law that relates the intensity with the surface mass of each element;
 
# For copper, infer lengh of semi-reduction, i.e. the lengh it takes to halve the number of Geiger-Müller counts;
 
# For copper, infer lengh of semi-reduction, i.e. the lengh it takes to halve the number of Geiger-Müller counts;
# The user will observe that experiments conducted in the same condition will give diferent values. This is caused by the randomness of nuclear processes. A way to prove this is to verify that the number of counts in the same condition follow a Binomial or Poisson Distribution due to extremelly low probability of the event.
+
# The user will observe that experiments conducted under the same conditions will give diferent values. This is caused by the randomness of nuclear processes. A way to prove this is to verify that the number of counts in the same conditions follow a Binomial or Poisson Distribution due to the extremelly low probability of the event.
Because of this last factor, the experimental error can be atenuated by adding several values of radioactive decay in the same conditions.
+
Because of this last factor, the experimental error can be atenuated by adding several values of radioactive decay under the same conditions.
  
  
 
=Advanced Protocol (Intermidiate Laboratory)=
 
=Advanced Protocol (Intermidiate Laboratory)=
 
A slightly more advanced protocol is:
 
A slightly more advanced protocol is:
# Looking at Americium's (\(^{241}Am_{95}\)) half-life and at the database, compare the number of decays in the same conditions (material in between and distance) in the past and in the present.
+
# Looking at Americium's (\(^{241}Am_{95}\)) half-life and at the database, compare the number of decays under the same conditions (material in between and distance) in the past and in the present.
 
# Verify the mathematical law for Radioactive Decay.
 
# Verify the mathematical law for Radioactive Decay.
 
# For the same material and distance, record a large number of decays.
 
# For the same material and distance, record a large number of decays.
# Fit a Gaussian function to the data and see if, by adding more experimental data, the fitting improves.
+
# Fit a Gaussian function to the data and see if the fitting improves by adding more experimental data, .
  
  
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==Radioactive Decay==
 
==Radioactive Decay==
The mathematical law that describes radioactive decay tells us that the variation of the number of radioactive nuclei, i.e. the number of decays at a given instant, is proportional to it's quantity:
+
The mathematical law that describes radioactive decay tells us that the variation of the number of radioactive nuclei, i.e. the number of decays at a given instant, is proportional to its quantity:
  
 
\[
 
\[
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\]
 
\]
  
Differentiating with respect to time, we get the sample's rate of decay (i.e. how many decays occur per second) a.k.a. radioactivity.
+
Differentiating in relation to time, we get the sample's rate of decay (i.e. how many decays occur per second) a.k.a. radioactivity.
 
\[
 
\[
 
R = \frac{dN}{dt} = N_0 \times \lambda \times e^{- \lambda t}
 
R = \frac{dN}{dt} = N_0 \times \lambda \times e^{- \lambda t}
 
\]
 
\]
  
The half-life, as the name implies, is the time it takes for an inicial sample to decay into half:
+
The half-life, as the name implies, is the time it takes for an initial sample to decay into half:
 
\[
 
\[
 
T_{^1/_2} = \frac{ln(2)}{\lambda}
 
T_{^1/_2} = \frac{ln(2)}{\lambda}

Revision as of 20:40, 20 October 2013

Description of the Experiment

This laboratory uses a Geiger-Müller detector to measure the radiation from a radioactive source (\( ^{241}Am_{95} \), Amerício), and study the absorption of radiation of different materials by putting them between the source and the detector.


Links

  • Video: [indisponível]
  • Laboratory: Intermediate em e-lab.ist.eu[1]
  • Control room: Radiare
  • Level: ***


Experimental Apparatus

The user can set the distance between source and detector (between 6cm and 20cm), and choose which material to place between the two parts.

The available materials are:

Position Material Thickness
1 Wood 10 mm
2 Corticite 10 mm
3 Brick 10 mm
4 Copper 0,2 mm
5 Copper 0,4 mm
6 Copper 0,8 mm
7 Copper 1,6 mm
8 Copper 3,2 mm
9 Control window (air) 0,5 mm
10 Lead 6 mm

The tenth position is, actually, "closing" the source.


Protocol (Basic Laboratory)

The suggested protocol for this experiment in the Basic Laboratory is the following:

  1. Study the variation of the radiation's intensity as the distance changes, given by the detector's output;
  2. Verify the linear absorption rate of the diferent materials, trying to establish a theoretical law that relates the intensity with the surface mass of each element;
  3. For copper, infer lengh of semi-reduction, i.e. the lengh it takes to halve the number of Geiger-Müller counts;
  4. The user will observe that experiments conducted under the same conditions will give diferent values. This is caused by the randomness of nuclear processes. A way to prove this is to verify that the number of counts in the same conditions follow a Binomial or Poisson Distribution due to the extremelly low probability of the event.

Because of this last factor, the experimental error can be atenuated by adding several values of radioactive decay under the same conditions.


Advanced Protocol (Intermidiate Laboratory)

A slightly more advanced protocol is:

  1. Looking at Americium's (\(^{241}Am_{95}\)) half-life and at the database, compare the number of decays under the same conditions (material in between and distance) in the past and in the present.
  2. Verify the mathematical law for Radioactive Decay.
  3. For the same material and distance, record a large number of decays.
  4. Fit a Gaussian function to the data and see if the fitting improves by adding more experimental data, .


Theoretical Principles

Geiger-Müller Detector

This device detects radiation levels, providing a number corresponding to how many radioactive particles go through it.

Radioactive Decay

The mathematical law that describes radioactive decay tells us that the variation of the number of radioactive nuclei, i.e. the number of decays at a given instant, is proportional to its quantity:

\[ \frac{dN}{dt} = - \lambda \times N \]

where \( \lambda \) is the decay constant. The solution of this equation tells us that, for a given time, the number of remaining nuclei is \[ N = N_0 \times e^{- \lambda t} \]

Differentiating in relation to time, we get the sample's rate of decay (i.e. how many decays occur per second) a.k.a. radioactivity. \[ R = \frac{dN}{dt} = N_0 \times \lambda \times e^{- \lambda t} \]

The half-life, as the name implies, is the time it takes for an initial sample to decay into half: \[ T_{^1/_2} = \frac{ln(2)}{\lambda} \]


Links